This resource sheet offers advice to all schools wanting to undertake gardening projects with pupils with Special Educational Needs.
It is recommended to have a maximum of 4 pupils in a group; with at least one member of school staff. The group size will depend on the pupils' needs, for example primary groups may be less distracted when there are only 2 or 3 pupils. Where staffing allows 1:1 working can be particularly beneficial.
Length of session
Primary – sessions up to 30 minutes work best in terms of concentration.
Secondary – most timetabled for 50 minutes – 1 hour. Some schools offer double sessions up to 1 hour 40 minutes, but need to include a range of activities so there is choice and variation during session. Realistically a 50 minute timetabled session allows 35 – 40 minutes in the garden, as time needs to be included for changing and getting outside.
Allow all pupils the opportunity for time out throughout the session to rest and reflect; provide them with simple jobs like cleaning tools whilst sitting down.
In winter some pupils may struggle with the cold so consider splitting the session to half indoors and half outside. Make sure pupils have clothes suitable to the season. On hot summer days, try to plan as many activities as possible in the shade to minimise pupils being out in the heat of the day. Let pupils have shade breaks and provide water to drink. Ensure pupils have sunscreen in accordance with school’s own policy.
Working in the garden
A ‘show, review and do’ approach works well for many pupils with SEN. This gives pupils the opportunity to try for themselves and then give support where necessary.
Before undertaking any activity, talk through the safety aspects relating to it. Working with a small group of pupils will enable the staff to keep a check on safety of pupils at all times when in the garden.
A ‘Jobs to Do’ board can encourage reluctant pupils to make their own choices and work independently. This technique works well for pupils with Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties (BESD). Pupils' were keen to work independently at the beginning of a session and then would pull together to help one another on larger tasks.
Tools & Equipment
Primary pupils can use children’s size tools, spades and rakes; for secondary age students smaller border spades and forks may be more maneageble than adult versions.
Hand tools are useful for a range of tasks, particularly when working on raised beds.
Trowels and hand forks, hand rakes and plastic L shaped dibbers can be valuable part of the tool kit.
Gloves, either cotton or plastic are essential.
Small trugs are useful for weeding, harvesting crops and keeping tools tidy. Kneeler mats make it more comfortable to sit down and work around low beds.
Pupils may favour sitting on two mats if kneeling is too uncomfortable.
A wheelbarrow is very useful for putting all the equipment in to minimise trip hazards, as well as carrying loads of compost and other heavier items.
Measuring sticks provide a planting guide and a sturdy surface for pupils to lean on when sowing seeds direct in the ground.
Seed sowers can be useful for pupils who may find it difficult to sow seeds evenly.
Adapted planting techniques should also be considered such as rolling bulbs down drainpipes or dropping them directly into containers.
Smaller watering cans with open tops can be easier to carry and can be simply filled by dipping directly into a trug or container filled with water.
Plant labels –use larger white plant labels, 15cm by 1.5cm, to provide a greater area for pupils to write upon.
Stick labels (these have a larger square top) in a variety of colours are also useful for different types of plants (such as herbs, vegetables and flowers). Pencil is best for writing on such labels. Small whiteboards are very useful for pupils to copy plant names from onto labels.
Writing techniques can be supported by school staff in many ways, such as encouraging pupils to make marks and writing the plant name in dashed writing for the pupil to trace over. Out in the garden schools may choose to make larger interpretation signs for all to see.
Trial tools with individual pupils; this is a good way to find out individual preferences.
Planting techniques for seeds, plants and bulbs
Larger seeds, such as broad beans, peas, are easiest to handle for all pupils. It can be useful for an adult helper to hold the seeds on their palm or put them on a lid so pupils can then select one or a pinch at a time.
Seed sowers can assist with the sowing of small seeds to get a more even spread. Sprinkling of small seeds will have differing degrees of success depending on the dexterity pupil.
Seed tapes are available from several seed companies for both vegetables and flowers. The biodegradable tape holds evenly spaced seeds and is easy to lay out in a seed drill. Although they are slightly more expensive than regular packets of seeds, the even spacing reducing the need for thinning out so may be cost saving if pupils tend to sow loose seeds in one large clump.
Plug plants: Many nurseries (local and on-line) now provide plug plants for both edible crops and flowers. Pupils can find these easier to handle than seed and results will be quicker as the plant is more advanced in its growth.
Bulbs may be easier to plant, including vegetable bulbs such as garlic or onions. Sseveral types of flowering bulb however can an irritant or toxic. Check this before using with pupils.